OBJECTIVE: American College of Radiology and Society of Breast Imaging guidelines call for routine breast MRI screening only for women with the highest risk profiles for development of breast cancer, suggesting that screening of women at lower risk might result in an increased frequency of false-positive biopsy results. The purpose of this study was to test this assumption by comparing MRI-guided biopsy outcomes of lesions detected at MRI screening of women with a personal history of breast cancer with outcomes among women with genetic or familial high risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Outcomes of 130 MRI-guided biopsies were analyzed. One group consisted of women with hereditary (genetic or familial) risk, and the other group consisted of women with a personal history of breast cancer. Biopsies were performed with a 9-gauge vacuum-assisted device or surgically after MRI localization.
RESULTS: Of 130 MRI-guided biopsies, 20 (15%) yielded malignant histologic findings, 14 (11%) yielded high-risk lesions, and 96 (74%) had benign findings. There was a slightly higher malignancy rate for the personal-risk group (19%) compared with the hereditary-risk group (13.5%). There also was a slightly higher combined rate of malignancy and high-risk lesions (34% vs 22%) with no statistically significant difference (p < 0.25, p < 0.12). Patients in the hereditary-risk group were younger (44 ± 1.2 vs 54 ± 1.7 years; p < 0.001) than those in the personal-risk group.
CONCLUSION: Our preliminary data show no difference between the two risk groups with respect to probability of an MRI-guided biopsy result of malignancy, calling into question the proposed assumption. Further prospective studies of the role of MRI screening combined with MRI-guided biopsy when required for patients with previously treated localized breast cancer may be indicated.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013 Oct;201(4):919-27